Louis van Gaal named his 30-man provisional squad for the finals on Tuesday and he sprang a few minor surprises.
Van der Wiel played in the 2010 World Cup final and is the major casualty, although the Paris St Germain right-back has struggled with form and injury this season.
Van Gaal has opted for more youthful talent, naming the uncapped 20-year-old Terence Kongolo and 19-year-old Tonny Vilhena, who both play for Feyenoord.
And Chelsea's Patrick van Aanholt, who is on loan at Vitesse Arnhem, was a surprise inclusion, having won his first cap as a late substitute in a friendly last November.
The absence of the 26-year-old van der Wiel means only eight members of the 30-man squad featured at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, when Holland lost 1-0 to Spain in the final.
Goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg plus defenders John Heitinga and Joris Mathijsen are also missing but Wesley Sneijder is there, despite Van Gaal recently expressing doubts as to the condition of the Galatasaray playmaker.
Van Gaal will cut seven more players when he names his final 23-man squad on 2 June.
Holland meet holders Spain in their opening game at the World Cup in a repeat of the 2010 final on 13 June in Salvador, and Australia and Chile will be their other Group B opponents.
Holland preliminary squad:
Goalkeepers: Jasper Cillessen (Ajax Amsterdam), Tim Krul (Newcastle United), Michel Vorm (Swansea City), Jeroen Zoet (PSV Eindhoven)
Defenders: Daley Blind (Ajax Amsterdam), Stefan de Vrij, Daryl Janmaat, Terence Kongolo, Bruno Martins Indi (all Feyenoord Rotterdam), Karim Rekik (PSV Eindhoven), Patrick van Aanholt (Vitesse Arnhem), Paul Verhaegh (FC Augsburg), Tonny Vilhena (Feyenoord Rotterdam), Ron Vlaar (Aston Villa), Joel Veltman (Ajax Amsterdam)
Midfielders: Jordy Clasie (Feyenoord Rotterdam), Jonathan de Guzman (Swansea City), Nigel de Jong (AC Milan), Leroy Fer (Norwich City), Arjen Robben (Bayern Munich), Wesley Sneijder (Galatasaray), Rafael van der Vaart (Hamburg), Georginio Wijnaldum (PSV Eindhoven)
Forwards: Jean-Paul Boetius (Feyenoord), Memphis Depay (PSV Eindhoven), Klaas-Jan Huntelaar (Schalke 04), Dirk Kuyt (Fenerbahce), Jeremain Lens (Dynamo Kiev), Quincy Promes (Twente Enschede), Robin van Persie (Manchester United)