The 21-year-old midfielder has signed a deal with Wanderers until 3 May.
Bolton manager Dougie Freedman is confident Robinson will boost his central midfield as the team look to push further away from the relegation zone.
"We've been looking at him for a while now," Freedman explained. "He's a good young player who has been brought up in a fantastic system.
"I've watched him play in the reserves for Southampton for some time now and we know all about him. He's a different type to some of the midfielders we've currently got."
Robinson is expected to go straight into the Bolton squad for Saturday's home match with Lancashire rivals Wigan.