The central defender has been a big hit at the Cardiff City Stadium since signing from Charlton in July 2009 and was voted as the fans' Player of the Season for 2012/13, after leading the club to the Championship title.
Cardiff manager Malky Mackay told the club's website: "I'm delighted that Mark has committed his future to Cardiff City Football Club. He is the ultimate professional, an inspirational leader of men and a pleasure to work with on a day to day basis.
"It was no surprise to see Mark voted as the Supporters Club's Player of the Season earlier this summer, nor that he was voted as part of the PFA's Championship Team of the Year.
"To secure our captain on a longer-term deal this summer was on our list of priorities and I'm sure he will have the same impact for us in the Barclays Premier League as he did in captaining the players to promotion last season."
Hudson, who has made 153 appearances for the club to date, added: "I'm thrilled to have secured my future with Cardiff City and that the thought of my contract is no longer in the back of my mind.
"It's a relief to have done this so early on in the summer so that we can focus purely on the football now in the build-up to the season's kick off."