The Scotland international has started just eight times since moving to Anfield from Rangers in the summer of 2010.
Wilson's arrival will offset the loss of two senior men to injury and the departure of Matthew Briggs, whose loan deal from Fulham is up after the weekend.
City boss Derek McInnes told the club's official website: "It's good to have another defender on board and certainly one of Danny's pedigree.
"We came up against him last season when he was on loan at Blackpool and I saw him playing for Rangers against my St Johnstone team before that.
"He's had a frustrating time at Liverpool with chances limited. We thank Brendan Rodgers and Liverpool for accommodating this move.
"He's now got a chance to impose himself on our team and show what he can do. We've a lot of games to play between now and January, and with the absence of Lewin Nyatanga and Stephen McManus to injury, Danny's arrival is timely."