McClaren, along with first-team coach Paul Simpson and goalkeeping coach Eric Steele, have commited their futures at the iPro Stadium until the summer of 2017.
The trio joined Derby at the end of September last year and led them to a third-place finish before losing out to QPR in the play-offs at Wembley thanks to a 90th-minute goal from Bobby Zamora.
Former England coach McClaren told the club's website: "I'm delighted to sign a new contract with Derby County, along with Paul Simpson and Eric Steele who are vital members of our coaching structure.
"Derby County is a club that is close to all our hearts and we’re all delighted to commit our futures to what continues to be an exciting project.
"The fans have bought into what we're trying to achieve and their backing has been nothing short of magnificent. The club is continuing to grow and we're all happy to be part of it; the future is exciting for Derby County.
"Last season ended in heartbreaking fashion but we all have our focus on the future now and there’s a real excitement for the season ahead."
President and chief executive Sam Rush said: "I'm delighted that Steve, Paul and Eric have all signed new contracts ahead of the new season.
"This is a key period for the club and off the back of a number of key players signing new contracts this summer it has been a priority for the management team to follow suit.
"It is fantastic that they have shown their commitment to Derby County in this way.
"There have been a number of changes on and off the field in the last year and I have very much enjoyed working alongside Steve, Paul and Eric.
"They share the same ambition as ourselves to reach the Premier League and I believe with them at the helm we have a fantastic chance of achieving our goals."