Feely joined the Dons on loan at the end of November and was an unused substitute in their 1-1 draw with Dagenham the following day.
But the 21-year-old sustained an injury prior to the Bristol Rovers game and faces a spell on the sidelines.
"After following the correct medical procedures, it is clear that the injury will keep Kevin out for a number of weeks," Neal Ardley told Wimbledon's official website.
"It's a grade two hamstring strain and Kevin has therefore gone back to Charlton for treatment. We will assess the situation in due course."