Ramires was left out of Brazil's successful Confederations Cup campaign following an apparent mix-up between his club and country over his fitness for two matches in March.
The 26-year-old has not played for Brazil since then - when he was at one point accused of attending his wife's dinner party instead - and Chelsea last month apologised for miscommunication surrounding his groin injury.
Ramires will be joined in the squad by Chelsea team-mates David Luiz, currently out of action with hamstring problem and Oscar while Tottenham summer signing Paulinho is also included.
Veteran full-back Maicon after leaving Manchester City for Roma has also been handed a recall in a near full-strength squad including the likes of Neymar, Thiago Silva and Dani Alves.
Brazil will meet Australia, who have already qualified for next summer's World Cup finals, in Brasilia on September 7 before meeting Portugal in Boston three days later.
Brazil squad: Julio Cesar (Queens Park Rangers), Jefferson (Botafogo), Dani Alves (Barcelona), Maicon (Roma), Marcelo (Real Madrid), Maxwell (Paris St Germain), Thiago Silva (Paris St Germain), David Luiz (Chelsea), Dante (Bayern Munich), Henrique (Palmeiras), Fernando (Shakhtar Donetsk), Hernanes (Lazio), Luiz Gustavo (Wolfsburg), Paulinho (Tottenham), Ramires (Chelsea), Oscar (Chelsea), Jo (Atletico Mineiro), Lucas (Paris St Germain), Hulk (Zenit St Petersburg), Bernard (Shakhtar Donetsk), Fred (Fluminense), Neymar (Barcelona).