The 24-year-old spent last season with Championship side Nottingham Forest, although a knee injury restricted him to featuring just nine times during his spell at the City Ground.
Since making his debut in 2007, Hutchinson has only managed six appearances for Chelsea, having initially retired from football due to injury in 2010, before making a U-turn and re-joining the Blues the following year.
He becomes the sixth loanee to leave Stamford Bridge for Vitesse this summer, following Patrick Van Aanholt, Gael Kakuta, Christian Cuevas, Lucas Piazon and recent arrival from FC Porto, Christian Atsu.
The strong relationship between the two clubs, which has seen a number of players shipped to the Eredivisie side in recent years to gain experience, bore fruit for Chelsea during this transfer window as they captured midfielder Marco van Ginkel.
Everton youngster Francisco Junior has also joined Vitesse on loan as they look to build on last season's fourth-placed finish.
Meanwhile, Chelsea have also confirmed that Mexican attacker Ulises Davila has joined Spanish second division side Cordoba on loan for the season.