The Blues fell three points behind new Barclays Premier League leaders Manchester City, who beat West Ham 9-0 in the two-legged Capital One Cup semi-final, after a resolute display from Sam Allardyce's men.
Mourinho outlined his unhappiness with the Hammers' tactics afterwards.
The self-proclaimed 'Special One' said: "It's very difficult to play a football match where only one team wants to play. It's very difficult.
"A football match is about two teams playing and this match was only one team playing and another team not playing.
"I told Big Sam and I repeat my words: they need points and, because they need points, to come here and play the way they did, is it acceptable? Maybe, yes.
"I cannot be too critical, because if I was in his position I don't know if I would do the same. Maybe.
"At the same time I told him also this is not Premier League, this is not the best league in the world, this is football from the 19th century."
Chelsea tried everything to unlock the Hammers' defence and when they did they found goalkeeper Adrian in supreme form.
Mourinho added: "The only (other) thing I could bring was a Black and Decker (tool) to destroy the wall."
The Blues had 39 shots but could still not find a way past a heroic West Ham who finished the game with 10 men following a shoulder injury to Joey O'Brien which could see him out of action for up to three months.
Mourinho was also left frustrated by what he viewed as the Hammers' time wasting tactics and could not understand why only four extra minutes were added on.
"They wasted two minutes every time they kicked off and the referee gives the wrong message when he gives just four minutes but it is what it is."
Mourinho pointed to aimless long balls to illustrate his point, which he had made to Hammers boss Allardyce after the game.
"He was laughing," Mourinho added. "His objective was won: come here and take a point. It was not to come here and play good football or to try to win or to feel part of the quality of the Premier League.
"He takes the point. After that he's a happy man and I'm a sad guy."
Mourinho refused to criticise his players, who could have done with someone of the guile of Juan Mata, now at Manchester United.
"With my players, I'm happy," Mourinho said.
"My team tried everything. Their goalkeeper saved a lot, but they also had other players without gloves who saved a lot.
"They played with five defenders; they looked more goalkeepers than defenders."
Mourinho resisted the urge to criticise the officials, who ruled out a stoppage-time Samuel Eto'o strike, having already blown for a foul amid a confusing conclusion which also saw Adrian save from Frank Lampard.
Chelsea next play a City side who beat Tottenham to go top of the Premier League.
"For me it's not a surprise," Mourinho added.
"We go there next Monday and the result at this moment is 0-0. Are they favourites? Yes. Are they even favourites to score again four, five, six goals? Yes.
"But the result is 0-0 and we go there to compete and to play."