McCullough, who has represented Northern Ireland at U17 and U19 level, had been on trial with Paul Dickov's side at the Keepmoat Stadium since the start of the pre-season.
He signed for United's Academy aged of 16 before going on to captain the youth side throughout the 2011/12 campaign.
The 19-year-old told Rovers' official website: "I heard Doncaster were interested in taking a look at me so I came across and I've not looked back since - I've really enjoyed every minute that I have been here.
"Pre-season has been tough but as the manager has said it will give us a good base to build upon going into the season.
"The manager seems to have a good plan and wants the boys to keep improving.
"The rest of the lads have been very friendly and have made me feel very welcome - there's a good team spirit here."