The Spireites have had an agreement in place for Doyle to move to the Proact Stadium for several weeks when his contract at SPL club Hibernian expired.
He made his last appearance for Hibs in Sunday's Scottish Cup final defeat by Celtic.
The 25-year-old played under Blues boss Paul Cook at Sligo Rovers in Ireland and he is looking forward to linking up with his former manager once more.
"He knows how to get the best out of me," said Doyle. "He was good for me during my time in Ireland and thankfully the opportunity came to play under him again.
"This club has got great prospects and there are great facilities at the stadium and the training ground so he didn't have to do much to sell it to me."
Cook added: "Having worked with him before, I know all about his qualities so I was very keen to bring him in. He's a hard working player with great movement in the final third and he'll score goals."