The 20-year-old will remain at the Proact Stadium until Saturday, November 24 and will be available to play in the Spireites' game at Plymouth on that date.
Atkinson has impressed since joining Chesterfield on a temporary basis in mid-September, scoring three goals in nine appearances.
In an official statement, caretaker manager Tommy Wright said: "I'm pleased that Chris will be staying with us.
"I spoke to the Huddersfield manager, Simon Grayson, who's delighted that he's staying here. Simon is pleased with how he's playing and how we're looking after him."