Oxley's arrival makes it unlikely that Dean Lyness will make his debut against Bradford as Rowett had originally planned.
Rowett told the club's official website: "I've watched Mark on several occasions now. He reminds me a little bit of Legzy (Adam Legzdins) in terms of his size and presence."
Oxley, 22, added: "I was preparing for Hull's match against Bristol City when I got a phone call saying Burton were interested. Obviously I want to come out and play some games, they're a good club and doing well in the league.
"The whole idea of this season for me is to come somewhere and play regularly, this is the season where I need to play first-team football and a club like Burton is the best place for me to be doing it."