An uneventful first half gave way to a one-sided second, as Andrew Shinnie's excellent effort preceded a Jamie McKay double that made the points safe for the high-flying hosts.
The result puts Caley three points clear of third-place Motherwell, and Butcher's men have now lost just one of their last 21 fixtures in all competitions.
The former England centre-back said afterwards: "We played well in the second half. When the game opened up we had players able to exploit the space.
"The front four worked well together, but up until we got the goals the game was pretty even.
"Aberdeen put us under pressure at times and you thought there was going to be goals for both sides.
"It took us 45 minutes to get going having just come back from the winter break, but once we did we came right back into it in the second half."