Doran played a key role in helping Caley Thistle to a third place finish - their highest ever Premier League placing, and also reaching the semi-final of the League Cup.
Manager Terry Butcher was delighted with the contribution of the 22-year-old, who bounced back following an injury ravaged campaign the season before.
Doran said: "Contract talks have dragged on a bit, but I'm delighted to have committed myself to Caley Thistle.
"I'm happy to be at the club and in Inverness and getting the negotiations over gives me security and enables me to plan for the future. It's been on my mind these past few months so it's a relief to put pen to paper.
"The 2011-12 season was a nightmare for me because of the shoulder injury which restricted me to only a handful of appearances.
"There could hardly be a bigger contrast this past season when I played every game. I managed to add a few more goals to my account, which is what I've been working on."
The Ireland under-21 cap added: "It's been an exciting season and I think we can keep the momentum going because we've got most of the team re-signed already.
"We've lost Andrew Shinnie and Antonio Reguero, but keeping the core of the squad means we don't need to get to know each other at the start of next season so hopefully we can get going right from the start.
"I'm really looking forward to next season as we've the right platform to do well again."
Manager Butcher said: "Having Aaron fit and flying again made a really positive contribution to our season. It's fair to say that he had other offers from the south, but I was always optimistic that he would stay.
"Aaron gives us width, pace and trickery and I know the supporters enjoy his performances. His best is yet to come.
"That means we've 13 of the first team signed up, which is a much stronger position than the club has been in many years."