Goals from Scott Boyd and Alex Cooper in the opening quarter proved decisive as Aaron Doran's goal came too late for Inverness, who had Ross Draper sent off during the second half.
County had lost their last six games and had yet to collect three points away from home this season but they put that right in front of the ecstatic travelling support who had made the short journey across the Black Isle.
"It was important that we started the game well and got the early goal from Scott Boyd," said Adams.
"Quickly after that Alex Cooper got the second goal and it was great. They didn't really trouble us apart from the goal but they're still a good side and have done well this season.
"They've got players that can hurt you and I thought we did well to keep them at bay today. We haven't been able to get a break and after Inverness hit the post, we got that first goal.
"When you get that first goal in this league it is vitally important to follow it up. We haven't gone of the boil, the conditions just played their part. We've got a big game against Hibs on Sunday."
Adams was delighted with the contribution of Jordan Slew, who joined on loan from Blackburn on the eve of the game.
The striker, who moved to Rovers from Sheffield United in a £1m deal two years ago, played a key part in both goals and Adams was pleased he could get the deal done in time.
"We only got clearance for him on Wednesday morning and I was at the stadium waiting for that to come through," he said.
"I think Jordan was terrific, he came in and did well and gave us an 'out' ball. He caused (Gary) Warren and (Josh) Meekings some trouble."
Caley Thistle were suffering their first home defeat by County in more than four years and manager John Hughes said: "I think we were the better side. They had patches, sucked us in and hurt us on the counter-attack which is disappointing.
"But credit to everyone in terms of effort, they kept on going right until the last minute trying to win the football match.
"We were chopping and changing things to try and get there and maybe we've scored that goal a little bit too late.
"You've got to learn. We're a great, hard-working bunch of lads but we've got to stop beating ourselves."