The 26-year-old former FC Basle player has signed a contract with the relegation-battling German club until 2016.
"David Abraham has, from the first meeting with us, demonstrated a strong willingness to accept this difficult challenge here at Hoffenheim," the club's general manager Andreas Muller told their website.
"I am confident he will help us."
Coach Marco Kurz added: "David has a lot of experience for his age at the highest level, which is now very important to us. The particular strengths I see are his speed and his handling of one-on-one situations. I am glad we have been able to get him."
Abraham could serve as a replacement for Marvin Compper, who has been sent to train with the youth team and is reportedly close to joining Fiorentina.
Hoffenheim are 16th in the Bundesliga, in the relegation play-off spot, eight points adrift of 15th-placed Nurnberg.