Early goals from Darren Potter and Daniel Powell set Milton Keynes on the way to victory before a second-half penalty from Jamal Campbell-Ryce gave County hope of a comeback.
A strong first-half showing proved enough for the Dons to bounce back from successive home defeats over the Christmas period and Robinson was in jubilant mood after the game.
He said: "It has been a tremendously testing time for me and the boys. We've got seven of the best players in the division out through injury right now.
"To be that short on numbers and to come to Notts County and win - I would put this as one of my best victories as MK Dons manager.
"I've never had it this difficult as a manager but what makes my life so much easier is having good people around me.
"In recent weeks our battling qualities have been lacking but it was there today and I said before the game to the boys that you have to put your body on the line to get anything at Notts County as they are a good side and Keith Curle is a good footballing person."