Poole has enjoyed a career spanning 32 years, playing for Leicester, Birmingham, Middlesbrough, Bolton, Aston Villa and Derby as well as having loan spells at Hartlepool and Northampton.
He joined Burton in 2006 and made 123 appearances during his time at the Pirelli Stadium, as well as undertaking the role of goalkeeping coach recently.
"I have thought about retirement for a while and as long as I have been at Burton I have decided at the end of each season whether I am fit enough to carry on," Poole told the club's official website. "The time has come now where it takes a couple of days for me to recover after each match I play so I think it is time to knock it on the head."
Poole's last senior appearance for Albion was in the Johnstone's Paint Trophy second round against Rotherham in October 2011.
He is the oldest player currently registered with the Football League.