Clark, 19, made two appearances for Paul Cook's side during his month-long stay with the Spireites.
The player came on as a late substitute in the 1-0 home defeat to Gillingham on February 23 before making his full debut for the League Two club three days later in a goalless draw with Aldershot at the Proact Stadium.
"I'd like to thank Barnsley for agreeing to the loan and I wish Jordan all the best for the future," said Chesterfield boss Cook.
Manchester City winger Alex Henshall, 19, has also returned to his parent club after his loan spell with the Spireites came to an end.
Like Clark, the youngster made his first appearance for the club as a substitute against Gillingham and started the Aldershot match.