Pickford, 19, who has represented England more than 30 times at youth level, is highly regarded at the Stadium of Light.
He has gained first-team experience with loan spells at Darlington and most recently Alfreton Town; where Pickford impressed with five clean sheets in 12 games for the Conference club.
Burton manager Gary Rowett said: "Jordan is a player of undoubted ability who I know is regarded very highly by the coaches at the Stadium of Light.
"He's a player with great potential and in him and Dean Lyness we now have two talented young keepers.
"It's a position that requires a lot of consideration and I believe Jordan has the attributes and temperament to be a really valuable addition to the squad."