The Reds had destiny in their own hands until a 2-0 home defeat to Chelsea last month which handed the initiative to Manchester City, who clinched their second title in three years by beating West Ham on Sunday.
However, second place still represents success for Liverpool, having come from seventh last season, as it secured a return to the UEFA Champions League.
Although Sturridge knows it could have been so much better, he also believes this campaign will not be a flash in the pan.
"I know we set the target of reaching the Champions League but I can't stand here and say I'm happy. I am gutted," said the England striker.
"I know we've gone from seventh to second but I am never happy coming second no matter what I'm playing, whether it's table tennis, cricket or whatever, I don't like losing.
"We're all hungry for success and the fans deserve success. They've given us great support from the first minute to the last and I apologise to them for not winning the Premier League.
"I'll do everything in my power, just like my team-mates will, to try to ensure we do that for them next season. I believe we can.
"People can make excuses about how we had an advantage because we weren't in Europe this season but I know we will be contenders again next season.
"We will take the positives from this season and learn from the negatives. This experience will stand us in good stead for next season. I believe we will challenge.
"Next season will be a big year for us and we're looking forward to that already."
After 21 goals this season it was no surprise to see Sturridge selected in Roy Hodgson's World Cup squad and the 24-year-old hopes to be able to take his good form to Brazil.
"It's a very big summer ahead," he said. "I'm really looking forward to going to Brazil and trying to do well. I'm hungry to do well. I want to bring England some success."