The 35-year-old, who currently plays for Argentinian side Newell's Old Boys, has struggled with a series of injuries since he returned to his homeland in 2012.
After a glittering career which included spells at Paris Saint-Germain, Real Madrid and Marseille, Heinze revealed he had no other option than to retire.
"Unfortunately at this time, I couldn't fight against the reality of my body - it's a game I can't win," he told the Newell's official site.
"I would play my whole life at Newell's, but I know I can't be selfish.
"The time has come to end my contract. I'll honour my word more than anything, I'll do my best in the remaining months because the institution will always come first.
"I trust the club will invest the money of my wages into development, which I feel is the future we all want for Newell's. This is what I want."