Having already sat out the club's opening game at Stoke last Saturday, the Clarets defender will also miss the first top-flight game to be played at Turf Moor for 33 years.
Caldwell suffered a groin injury on international duty with Scotland last week.
Defender Michael Duff will also miss the match, but Burnley are boosted by the return of summer signing David Edgar, who could make his debut after sitting out Saturday's game through a suspension he picked up while still at Newcastle.
Andre Bikey could also be in line to make his debut after the Cameroon international completed his move from Reading.
Clarets (from): Jensen, Eckersley, Edgar, Bikey, Carlisle, Alexander, Mears, Jordan, Kalvenes, Eagles, Blake, McCann, McDonald, Gudjonsson, Easton, Thompson, Rodriguez, Paterson, Elliott, Fletcher, Penny.