The long-serving midfielder, who spent last season on loan at Leeds and has only been brought into Aidy Boothroyd's XI since injury struck Sammy Clingan, produced a rare moment of class at the Ricoh Arena on a gloomy November afternoon in which the football was not much better.
With just under an hour on the clock on Saturday, a Sky Blues corner was recycled to Doyle who picked up the ball 25 yards out and took a touch before unloading into Lee Grant's bottom left corner.
It could have been all so different for Burnley, who remain the only team in the Championship yet to win on their travels this term, had nine-goal Chris Iwelumo found the net 60 seconds earlier when put clean through.
Nevertheless, it was only the visitors' second defeat in 12 league games and a morale-boosting one at that for a Coventry side who leapfrog their Lancashire opponents into the top 10.
Clarets keeper Grant was first to be called into action to keep out Lee Carsley's sixth-minute drive.
But it was opposite number Keiren Westwood who proved his credentials just a minute later with a superb block from point-blank range after Jay Rodriguez had ghosted in behind the sluggish Richard Keogh.
Both sides spent the next 20 minutes trying to impose their superiority, albeit without producing anything of note in the final third, with a lack of pace and urgency ultimately evident.
The 14,432 inside the Ricoh Arena were suddenly brought to life shortly before the half hour mark as Grant dived to his top right corner to palm Gary McSheffrey's goalbound free-kick around a post.
Chris Eagles should have done better just prior to the break as the heart of Coventry's defence opened up, mis-hitting the ball well over the bar.
And that was pretty much as good as it got during an uninspiring opening 45 minutes.
The biggest surprise at the start of the second half was that neither Boothroyd or Burnley counterpart Brian Laws opted to make any substitutions.
But, with the hosts' negative play making the home support restless, it was Boothroyd who dealt his hand first in bringing on Iceland international midfielder Aron Gunnarsson.
Almost immediately it was Burnley who should have broken the deadlock, Iwelumo blazing wide when put clean through by Tyrone Mears.
And within a minute he was made to pay for the miss as Doyle showed him how it is done.
A Sky Blues corner was headed away from goal and the ball was knocked down to the Irish midfielder who duly found the bottom corner with a fine drive.
Laws was greeted with chants of 'you don't know what you're doing' by the club's travelling support when he strangely replaced Iwelumo with 21 minutes remaining.
And replacement Steven Thompson could have levelled matters during his cameo, firing over with the City defence at sixes and sevens.
City substitute Lukas Jutkiewicz came agonisingly close to adding a second in injury time, but it was Doyle's effort which settled matters.