Billy Sharp's opening goal put the hosts on the back foot but Ipswich were ahead by the hour mark courtesy of goals from David Norris and then Connor Wickham, who had missed a host of chances before the break.
Sharp immediately grabbed a second to put Doncaster on level terms but Carlos Edwards scored the third goal in four minutes on 64 to ultimately earn Town all three points.
Sharp stunned the hosts after just six minutes with his 11th league goal of the season. Having hit the post one minute earlier, Sharp was grateful to pounce on James Coppinger's floated cross from the left wing to put Rovers into the lead.
Wickham, fresh from signing a contract keeping him at Portman Road until 2013, found himself in space in the box minutes later. Neil Sullivan in the visitors' goal tipped his shot round the right hand post at full stretch to retain the advantage.
Norris let rip an ambitious shot from distance, but fired over Sullivan's bar as the hosts piled forward searching for an equaliser.
Wickham came close again, with another powerful shot from inside the penalty box bringing the best out of Sullivan - who managed to pluck it out of the air.
Colin Healy should have done better than head Lee Martin's inswinging corner tamely into the arms of the under siege Sullivan with 21 minutes played.
It was Tractor Boys shotstopper Marton Fulop that negotiated the next scare, intercepting a snapshot from Rovers striker Dean Shiels which had looked unstoppable.
And the hosts had the best chance before the break, Martin again supplying a pinpoint aerial ball for Tamas Priskin. The Carling Cup semi-final hero got his head to the ball as it swung dangerously into unmarked space, but to the disappointment of the Portman Road faithful, it sailed over the bar.
Ipswich resumed the second half with intent, stringing three or four confident passes together. When the ball was pushed through to Norris inside the area, he curled in a deserved equaliser.
Wickham fulfilled his early promise on the hour mark, meeting Healy's cross to head home from close range. Doncaster responded instantly, Coppinger charging up the right wing from the restart to cross in for Sharp, who headed low into the net.
This did nothing to quell the resurgent Ipswich side who made the most of a foul on Priskin by Adam Lockwood. Grant Leadbitter's free-kick from the left found Edwards, who controlled well before blasting in from distance to restore the lead.
Rovers' John Oster threatened a last-minute shock with a shot from distance but Damien Delaney cleared to ensure all three points for the home side.