Theo Robinson was denied various opportunities to give the Rams a much-needed home win by the away captain's battling performance, with the Tykes going close through Garry O'Connor and Danny Haynes.
Barnsley had the first chance of the afternoon, O'Connor forcing Frank Fielding to tip round his post after three minutes.
The hosts responded quickly, Tomasz Cywka combining well with John Brayford on the right wing to supply a driven cross into the box. Robinson bustled into a good position but failed to get a foot to the loose ball.
Tykes captain Shackell, a surprise inclusion given the loss of his two front teeth in last weekend's defeat to Norwich, cleared the ball from danger as Robinson threatened to regain his composure.
On 16 minutes, Kieran Trippier's inswinging corner tested the Derby defence, playmaker Cywka on hand to play sweeper with a confident clearance.
Neither side could conjure up the cut-and-thrust attacking football required as they battled on through the wet conditions, Barnsley squandering a pair of good chances on the half hour mark.
Diego Arismendi manoeuvred well to blast from distance but Liverpool loanee Daniel Ayala was on hand to block bravely, before another Trippier corner veered wildly towards the top corner of Fielding's goal but he managed to punch clear.
Derby were reduced to potshots from distance from the rest of the half, Paul Green should perhaps have done better after 38 minutes when he blasted over the crossbar. Stephen Pearson sent a dangerous low ball into the Barnsley box but no white shirt could get on the end of it.
With two minutes of the half remaining, Brayford conjured up a clever back-flick to Robinson, who span on a sixpence but could only hook the ball wide of Jason Steele's goal
The rain abated as the sides came out for the second half and Barnsley were the first side to provide something for the fans to smile about. Paul McShane was unlucky not to put the visitors ahead, his close range header from a Trippier corner bouncing just wide of goal.
Shackell could have broken the deadlock with an ambitious headed attempt from outside the box on 55 minutes but Fielding caught well. Haynes produced a wonderful left-footed drive in the 67th minute to the Derby defence again but Shaun Barker intervened to preserve the stalemate.
With just over 10 minutes remaining, O'Connor's shot was blocked by Gareth Roberts, who was making his 500th career league start.
Nathan Doyle nearly provided a shock win for Barnsley, his injury-time drive sailing right from long distance.