Steve Brooker put Rovers in front with a 25-yard thunderbolt in the 50th minute and although they were pegged back by Ayegbeni Yakubu's leveller, the result was enough to ensure Sheffield United's 2-2 draw with Barnsley was inconsequential.
However, a share of the spoils was not enough to keep Leicester's slim play-off hopes alive and they will go into their final game with nothing to play for.
The visitors started with plenty of attacking intent and Darius Vassell thought he had opened the scoring with the game's first chance.
He fired into the top corner after latching on to captain Andy King's defence-splitting pass but the former England international was flagged offside.
Vassell then cut in from the right before squaring the ball to Paul Gallacher on the left and his shot from the edge of the area went inches wide of the right-hand post.
Yakubu had a sight at goal from close range but the ball became entangled in his legs, which gave Rovers an opportunity to clear their lines.
Leicester continued to dominate and goalkeeper Neil Sullivan was forced into action when Gallacher brought down King's ball over the top but after being forced wide by George Friend and Wayne Thomas, the midfielder's tame shot was easily saved.
Sullivan was again called on to keep out Gallacher's 35-yard free-kick, which bounced awkwardly in front of the Rovers custodian.
However, Doncaster's defence held firm in spite of the pressure and they ended the half on a positive note.
Ryan Mason and Jason Hayter flashed deliveries across the face of goal, but on both occasions, no one was able to add a decisive touch.
Brooker was brought on at the beginning of the second half for the ineffective Jason Euell and within five minutes of his introduction he broke the deadlock in sensational style.
There seemed to be no danger when the striker brought down Sullivan's clearance 25 yards from goal but after shrugging off the challenge of Miguel Vitor, Brooker unleashed a half-volley that rocketed into the top-right hand corner of the net.
Shell-shocked by the opener, Leicester attacked with gusto and Diomansy Kamara should have levelled proceedings when the ball sat up for him from six yards, but the substitute blazed over.
However, Yakubu spared his team-mate's blushes with a cool finish in the 76th minute.
Vassell and Steve Howard worked the ball to the Nigerian and although there was a suspicion of offside, Yakubu slotted home with aplomb.
Mason could have put Doncaster immediately back in front with a volley from just outside the area and although the ball squirmed between Chris Weale's hands, the Leicester keeper had got enough contact to ensure the effort went over.