The result stretched the Addicks' run without a win to 11 games as goals either side of the break from Jason Kennedy and Craig Dawson sunk Chris Powell's team.
Dale goalkeeper Owain Fon Williams saved angled drives from Scott Wagstaff and Therry Racon inside the opening five minutes and later kept out Joe Anyinsah's shot.
Keith Hill's side grabbed the lead in the 34th minute. Robbie Williams' centre was cut out by Jose Semedo, but his clearing header dropped invitingly to Kennedy on the edge of the area and he sent a stunning volley into the bottom right-hand corner of Rob Elliott's net.
The goal ignited Dale and before the break Chris O'Grady fed Matt Done for a clear view at the target, but he pulled his shot wide of the upright.
They made the result safe in the 75th minute when Dawson scrambled the ball across the goalline after Done's corner caused panic in the Charlton six-yard box.