Colchester defender Michael Rose cleared skipper Johnnie Jackson's low drive off the goalline before Charlton took a 13th-minute lead through Wright-Phillips in Tuesday night's League One clash at the Weston Homes Community Stadium.
He pounced on Rose's error in midfield and played a one-two with Scott Wagstaff before coolly slotting past colchester goalkeeper Mark Cousins.
Cousins denied Wagstaff but Wright-Phillips doubled their lead after 28 minutes when he side-footed home from five yards, after Paul Hayes had helped on Jackson's cross.
Cousins denied Hayes and the closest Colchester came to scoring before half-time was when Charlton goalkeeper Rob Elliot pushed away Magnus Okuonghae's effort.
Cousins foiled Wright-Phillips in the opening minutes of the second half and again on the hour-mark as the former Southampton striker hunted for a hat-trick, while Jackson fired over from the edge of the penalty area and was then denied by Cousins from close-range as Charlton eased to another win.