The Rams dominated for large spells at Pride Park but were largely denied by a magnificent performance from Barnsley goalkeeper Luke Steele.
And the Tykes even threatened to steal all three points when Jacob Butterfield profited from some poor defending to open the scoring from close range 10 minutes before the interval.
Derby's attackers squandered several chances to draw level but Barnsley's defender Bobby Hassell brought down Ben Davies to gift the hosts a spot kick.
Steve Davies did not waste the opportunity and his side laid siege to the visitors' goal for the remaining half hour of the clash but they could not find a winning goal.
It was Derby's goalscorer who came closest to netting but his free header in injury time sailed over as Barnsley hung on for their fifth consecutive draw.
The high-flying Rams predictably made the better start as they sought to consolidate their league position.
Steele was forced into action early on when Jeff Hendrick's 25-yard strike was tipped behind the post by the Barnsley goalkeeper.
As the half progressed, however, Derby were struggling to sufficiently break down Barnsley, who had won one and drawn three of their previous four league matches on the road before tonight.
Former Barnsley defender Jason Shackell's long-range strike narrowly went over the bar but Butterfield took advantage of some sloppy Derby defending to put the Tykes ahead after 35 minutes.
Ricardo Vaz Te's cross from the left was insufficiently dealt with and Butterfield prodded home from close range after the ball had fallen to him.
That seemed to awaken Derby and they had two clear cut chances to level proceedings immediately after.
Full-back John Brayford's right-wing cross found Ben Davies in the area but the midfielder could only fire wide, while Theo Robinson saw a header palmed away by Steele.
Nigel Clough's men continued their ascendancy after half-time, with Jason Shackell just heading over from Ben Davies' corner.
Steve Davies and Theo Robinson also went close and Derby were given a lifeline their dominance deserved when they were awarded a penalty.
Ben Davies cut in from the left and was clumsily brought down by Hassell before namesake Steve fired his spot kick down the middle to leave Steele with no chance in the 62nd minute.
Unsurprisingly buoyed by their leveller, Derby continued to attack and Ben and Steve Davies linked up once again, with the latter's header producing a point-blank save from the brilliant Steele.
The Tykes shot stopper was beaten for a second time when Robinson tapped in the rebound after Steve Davies' long-range strike had been parried but the striker had already been flagged offside.
Steve Davies then spurned a golden chance to hand Derby all three points when he headed over at the death and the spoils were shared.