Tyrone Barnett notched only his second goal for Posh since arriving from Crawley before Paul Taylor doubled the home side's lead with an unstoppable drive just before half-time.
Nouha Dicko headed home with time fast running out at London Road to maintain the Seasiders' record of scoring in every league game in 2012 and give his side a lifeline, but Boyd ended the contest with a cool conversion.
Peterborough would dominate throughout and demonstrated their intent early as Taylor forced a brave block from Alex Baptiste after just 18 seconds.
Barnett failed to challenge Matt Gilks with wayward shot from the edge of the area but Taylor soon produced a more accurate effort that the former Rochdale keeper did well to smother.
Blackpool only managed to hold firm until the 27th minute.
Barnett was in the right place to head Posh into the lead as Lee Tomlin swung in a dangerous free-kick following Thomas Ince's foul on Tommy Rowe.
The visitors did not learn and Baptiste was soon penalised for a foul on Boyd just 25 yards from the target.
Taylor obliged with a sweetly taken free-kick but this time Gilks was able to parry away the threat.
Ian Holloway's men were twice profligate as Ian Evatt nodded Ludovic Sylvestre's pinpoint header wide of the target and Lomana LuaLua skewed a fearsome drive beyond the right post.
And two minutes before the break, they were punished.
This time Barnett turned provider as he picked out the onrushing Taylor who swivelled on the spot and drilled the ball into the back of the net.
Gilks denied Lee Frecklington with his feet as the home side's onslaught continued after the interval.
Taylor was soon sniffing for his second goal and produced another nervous parry from Gilks with a low swerving strike.
The Seasiders made a rare foray forward, Evatt unlucky not to hit the target with a bullet header, but the hosts were soon back in the ascendancy with Boyd and Barnett both going close from 12 yards.
Holloway withdrew the misfiring LuaLua to introduce veteran striker Kevin Phillips as the final 20 minutes approached.
The unplayable Taylor continued to terrorise Gilks, warming his palms with a fizzing drive from distance and narrowly missing the target with an audacious curler.
Dicko emerged for Matt Phillips as the visitors prepared for a late rally.
But it was the architect of the first goal, Tomlin, who had the best chance to put the game to bed in the 74th minute.
Boyd snuck into space behind the visiting backline to tee up a volley for Tomlin, the tricky winger connecting well but directing the ball across the face of goal and out of play.
The missed opportunity soon came back to haunt Posh as Blackpool halved the deficit with 10 minutes remaining.
Gary Taylor-Fletcher got free down the right flank and found Dicko lurking in the six-yard box. The on-loan Wigan forward stooped to nod home and set up a tense finale.
But there was to be no comeback from the Seasiders. Rowe wriggled free to reach the by-line and set up Boyd to slam home a decisive third and add gloss to a convincing victory for the hosts.