Two goals in the final 18 minutes from Scott Malone and Marc Pugh condemned the Terriers to a second defeat in four days to all but end their bid for a top-two finish.
Malone opened the scoring in the 72nd minute, tapping in from a yard out after Wes Thomas had fired across the face of goal.
Pugh sealed the points eight minutes from time with an excellent low finish past on-rushing Huddersfield goalkeeper Alex Smithies after being played in by Wes Fogden.
Bournemouth should have taken the lead during an amazing 50th-minute goalmouth scramble. Smithies did well to turn Pugh's free-kick on to the woodwork before Zavon Hines' follow-up shot was blocked on the goalline and Thomas then volleyed over from five yards with an open goal at his mercy.
Huddersfield's only meaningful chance came when home goalkeeper Darryl Flahavan pushed out Diego Arismendi's close-range header three minutes after half-time.