Taylor-Fletcher, who scored Blackpool's first goal in the Premier League last season, lashed home a glorious angled effort nine minutes from time to secure a 1-0 victory.
Hull's Tom Cairney and veteran striker Kevin Phillips on his Blackpool debut both shot against the post in the first half, while the hosts were made to pay for a succession of missed chances after the break.
Blackpool were relegated on the final day of last season and started slowly at the KC Stadium.
Hull almost went ahead in style in the 12th minute. Cairney's curling left-footed free-kick from 30 yards looked headed for the top corner only to come back off the post.
Robbie Brady, on loan from Manchester United, then cut inside from the left only to pull his shot wide of the near post.
At the other end, Phillips, 38 years old but still a handful, made ground down the right and sent in a cross which goalkeeper Peter Gulacsi came for but failed to cut out.
Elliot Grandin got his head to the ball but, under pressure from two defenders, could not direct his effort on target.
The lively Brady then got to the byline and fired in a cross which Stephen Crainey had to head behind.
But it was the visitors who ended the first half the strongest as Taylor-Fletcher pounced on a poor clearance and played Phillips in down the right, but the former England striker's fierce shot hit the outside of the near post with Gulacsi beaten.
Blackpool threatened again in the opening seconds after the break, Grandin skipping away from the challenge of James Chester only to be denied by a magnificent sliding tackle from Brady just inside the area.
Ian Holloway's men were now firmly in the ascendancy and Gulacsi was again unconvincing in the air as he failed to get a punch to Grandin's free-kick lofted into the area and Craig Cathcart's header dropped just wide.
Blackpool were then rescued by a last-ditch tackle from Alex Baptiste to nick the ball away from Matt Fryatt, while Brady raced down the right and guided in a low cross which Nick Barmby, sliding in, just failed to get a touch to.
Gulacsi's vulnerability on crosses nearly cost Hull again as he stayed on his line when he should have come to claim Grandin's corner and Taylor-Fletcher headed wide when he should have scored.
The best chance so far fell to Hull in the 69th minute when Fryatt was sent clean through, but a heavy touch allowed Matt Gilks to smother his shot and Barmby curled the rebound over the bar.
Brady was causing all sorts of problems with his pace down the wings and, with two defenders for company, still got to the byline and pulled back a low cross for Cairney, who was denied by an excellent block by Cathcart.
Blackpool took the lead in the 81st minute thanks to a fine goal by Taylor-Fletcher.
The 30-year-old played a neat one-two with Keith Southern, receiving the return ball as he broke into the right of the area and cracking a bouncing ball into the far corner past the despairing dive of Gulacsi.
Substitute Jay Simpson should have equalised in the dying moments when a long ball found him in space with the goal at his mercy, but he shot horribly over the bar.