Robinson, dropped from the squad for the game against Bolton at the Reebok Stadium on Tuesday night, responded in the best possible fashion with his second goal of the season to salvage a 1-1 draw for Nigel Clough's side.
It had looked like Kevin Doyle's first-half strike would be enough for Wolves to get all three points.
Both sides hit the frame of the goal prior to Doyle's strike - Sylvan Ebanks-Blake for the hosts and Jamie Ward for Derby.
The Rams had enough of the ball in the second half to get something out of the game and Robinson's effort ensured that they did.
With Matt Jarvis departing for West Ham in a club record deal this week, Wolves manager Stale Solbakken was forced to change a winning team.
Winger Jarvis, unlike last season's top scorer Steven Fletcher who also left Molineux on Friday for Sunderland, had played in both of Wolves' Championship fixtures to date, impressing against Leeds and Barnsley. David Edwards replaced him.
Solbakken was forced into another change in midfield, with Karl Henry absent from the squad following his second-half withdrawal during the 3-1 win over Barnsley in midweek. David Davis came in for the Wanderers skipper.
Derby made one change after losing 2-0 at Bolton on Tuesday night with teenager Will Hughes replacing Nathan Tyson, who dropped down to the bench. New signing Kieron Freeman was also among the substitutes for the Rams.
Ebanks-Blake hit the crossbar in the 10th minute after Doyle had knocked the ball into his path just six yards out.
The former Manchester United trainee then saw a header tipped over by Rams goalkeeper Frank Fielding less than a minute later.
At the other end, Wolves keeper Carl Ikeme got a hand to Ward's effort to divert the ball on to a post.
Solbakken's side made the breakthrough 10 minutes before half-time.
Edwards crossed from the right and Slawomir Peszko cleverly shielded the ball from his marker, letting it run across his body and into the path of Doyle who made no mistake from close range.
Ikeme denied Ward again early in the second half.
Richard Keogh should really have got Derby level after 65 minutes but the defender headed over from a corner.
Wolves lead was looking a precarious one and Ronald Zubar should have eased the tension late on but, like Keogh, he missed the target with a header.
It proved costly as Robinson, on as an 80th-minute replacement for Conor Sammon, curled a right-foot shot into the bottom corner in the third minute of added time.