Scotland, who scored moments into his Tykes debut in last weekend's 2-0 win over Millwall, sealed three points in the 88th minute after his initial shot was saved by Blackpool's substitute goalkeeper Mark Halstead.
Matt Gilks' red card for deliberate handball brought Halstead into the action at a time when the managerless Seasiders were in the ascendancy.
Jim O'Brien sent Barnsley in ahead at the break, the 20th time in 30 league games Blackpool have conceded the first goal this term, but Tom Ince deservedly levelled matters with his 16th of the season after 55 minutes.
A 25th-minute corner would provide greater disappointment for Blackpool as it directly led to Barnsley going in front.
Marlon Harewood burst past a pair of challenges following Martin Cranie's clearance and switched play from left to right to release O'Brien, who moments earlier saw a free-kick well saved by Gilks but left the keeper with no chance on this occasion.
Matt Phillips embarrassed himself with an air shot from Angel Martinez's cross but the Scotland international soon demonstrated his considerable skill, collecting Taylor-Fletcher delicate lofted pass to fizz a ball across the six-yard box that narrowly evaded Ince and Basham.
Gomes and Taylor-Fletcher were involved in an incisive passing move, which ended with Stephen Crainey cutting back for Ince to emphatically blast past Steele.
Phillips went close shortly afterwards but had to be sacrificed when Pool went down to 10 men in the 65th minute.
Some slack play in midfield allowed O'Grady to race through on goal and Gilks handled outside his area in the process of thwarting the recently-introduced substitute, leaving referee Geoff Eltringham with little option.
Halstead came on for Phillips to make his first appearance of the season between the posts and watched Tom Kennedy curl the resulting free-kick wide.
But Blackpool's brave pursuit of the win would ultimately be their undoing as Scotland stole in to prod past Halstead at the second attempt.