The hosts, having parted ways with Dean Holdsworth this week, started the brighter and striker Danny Hylton missed a golden opportunity to put them ahead in the 12th minute as he blasted over from eight yards.
Fleetwood's best chance fell to Jamie McGuire after 28 minutes. Aldershot failed to deal with a low cross from the right and McGuire fired over from just outside the six-yard box.
The home side took the lead on 38 minutes, Hylton hitting the ball into the roof of the net from close-range after Kieron Cadogan and Sonny Bradley had seen shots blocked.
Fleetwood had a good chance to level matters after the break but Ryan Crowther hit a post after being put through by Anthony Barry.
Things then turned sour for the away side as McGuire was given a straight red for a push on Oliver Risser.
And the visitors were then reduced to nine with 12 minutes to play as Alan Goodall was sent off for a professional foul on Hylton inside the area.
Goalkeeper David Lucas pushed the resulting penalty from substitute Craig Reid against a post but it did not take long for the hosts to double their lead and seal the points, Hylton firing home from the edge of the box for his second in the 84th minute.