Darren Ferguson's men stay 23rd but are now just one point from safety, having played a game more than 21st-placed Sheffield Wednesday.
The result halted Boro's four-match losing streak but still leaves Tony Mowbray's side six points adrift of the top six, where they had resided for much of the season until recently. They have taken just eight points from a possible 45 since the turn of the year.
Ferguson's Peterborough extended their unbeaten run to seven league matches with another battling performance.
Both sides looked fully aware of the rewards of claiming all three points and looked rather cagey in the opening exchanges.
Grant Leadbitter went closest to opening the scoring for the hosts midway through the half but was denied by a fine stop by Posh stopper Bobby Olejnik.
Boro continued to press forward and twice went close through efforts from Justin Hoyte and Rhys Williams before the visitors finally responded.
Craig Alcock led the charge as Ferguson's men looked to play on the counter but the full-back could not find a way past Luke Steele.
The hosts have suffered a torrid time with injuries throughout the season and were dealt another blow as they lost George Friend to a hamstring injury before the break.
Despite the setback, Boro remained the more positive of the two sides and again went close when Scott McDonald mis-hit from 18 yards.
Peterborough came out fighting after the break and fired a warning shot through Lee Tomlin before Olejnik fumbled Josh McEachran's effort behind at the opposite end.
Much like the first half, it was end-to-end with both sides going for broke in periods but ultimately frustrating one another.
Newcastle loanee Sammy Ameobi squandered Boro's best chance to win it at the death, summing up an evening of errant finishing from both sides.