Cristiano Ronaldo took centre stage for Jose Mourinho's side as he fired in a second-half hat-trick to take his tally in the league this season to 21 from as many games.
Sergio Ramos opened the scoring for the hosts after 54 minutes to set Madrid on their way to a victory that closes the gap on leaders Barcelona to 12 points ahead of their match against Osasuna later on Sunday.
The display will go some way to improving the mood in the Madrid camp, after a week spent denying allegations of a rift between Mourinho and a group of key players at the Bernabeu.
The hosts failed to make a breakthrough in the opening 45 minutes, however, although Ronaldo twice forced Miguel Moya to make decent saves, while Mesut Ozil also drew a good stop from the Getafe goalkeeper.
The opening goal arrived nine minutes into the second half, although there was more than a little bit of good fortune in the build-up. After Angel Di Maria hung up a corner from the right, Moya appeared to be impeded by Ricardo Carvalho as they challenged for the ball, but referee Jose Luis Gonzalez allowed play to continue, leaving Ramos free to bundle the ball home from inside the six-yard box.
Gonzalo Higuain headed over as Madrid hunted a second, which Ronaldo supplied in the 62nd minute. A swift counter-attack led to Ozil releasing Ronaldo on the left side of the Getafe box, and the Portuguese showed all his class as he cut inside and tucked a low finish beyond Moya.
Three minutes later it was 3-0 as Di Maria sent a cross to the back post and Ronaldo had a simple task to head home.
The points were rubber-stamped with 18 minutes remaining after Luka Modric was bundled over in the area to allow Ronaldo to step up and complete his treble with a low finish from 12 yards.
Ronaldo's opener took him past the landmark of 300 club goals.
The Portuguese, who was substituted with around 15 minutes left after a knock to his right ankle, scored five for Sporting, 118 for Manchester United and now has 179 for Real thanks to his 20th career treble.