The Seagulls dominated the opening quarter at the Amex on Tuesday and enjoyed chance after chance only to be rocked by Scott Dann's 24th-minute header from Danny Murphy's corner, the centre-back's third goal of the season.
Brighton were again wasteful towards the end of the first half, but finally hit the back of the net from the penalty spot shortly before the hour mark.
Rovers protested furiously after Marcus Olsson was penalised for handball from Vicente's cross but the Spaniard kept his cool to drill home from the spot for his second goal in as many games.
It was a pulsating opening to proceedings from Brighton, Dean Hammond seeing a shot blocked before Leonardo Ulloa volleyed wide inside the opening minute. Vicente's seventh-minute effort from distance, comfortably saved by Jake Kean, was a precursor to a drilled effort which flew narrowly wide of target.
The former Spain international was at the centre of everything and his lob soon found Will Buckley, whose should have done better as he saw his fluffed shot tipped around a post by Kean.
Blackburn broke from the resulting corner and DJ Campbell fired wide before, at the other end, Bruno Saltor blasted just wide from 20 yards - all within the opening 12 minutes.
And the home side were made to pay for their profligacy. Murphy sent in an outswinging corner and an unmarked Dann was on hand to head downwards from eight yards.
The goal knocked the stuffing out of a Brighton side who will certainly have felt they could have been a couple of goals to the good.
And in first-half injury time Brighton were thwarted twice more, Kean producing a great stop to keep out Hammond's header before the midfielder nodded straight at the Rovers stopper.
Both sides had claims for a penalty at the start of a second period which Brighton opened the stronger. And it was not long before the home side got the goal they dominance deserved, this time courtesy of a successful spot-kick appeal.
Vicente's cross was handled by Olsson and, after the assistant referee signalled for a penalty - much to the disbelief of the visitors - the Spaniard converted straight down the middle.