Goals from Danny Ings and a Sam Vokes brace were enough to ensure the Addicks' miserable start to the season continued in East Lancashire.
It was a nervy opening for both sides at Turf Moor, with Charlton set up in a defensive formation aimed at stifling the Burnley attack.
Neither keeper had much to do until the 15th minute when full-back Rhoys Wiggins dragged a shot wide for the visitors who were forced onto the back foot in the early exchanges.
Simon Church then tested Tom Heaton two minutes later to ensure Burnley did not have it all their own way.
Vokes went closest for the Clarets after 31 minutes, glancing a Kieran Trippier cross just wide of the far post with only the keeper to beat.
Striker Ings ensured the home side went in a goal to the good at the break with his 10th of the campaign.
Heaton pumped a long ball forward which Vokes flicked on for Trippier, whose inch-perfect centre was lifted past Ben Hamer on the volley by Ings.
Trippier then dragged a long-range free-kick wide of Hamer's goal in first half injury time as the Clarets looked to add to their lead.
The visitors did start the second half brightly, substitute Callum Harriott at the heart of much of the good work, firing over three minutes after the restart.
Vokes doubled the Burnley lead after 66 minutes, bringing to an end another sweeping move from Sean Dyche's side.
The Welshman lifted the ball over the advancing Hamer after collecting a through ball from Dean Marney.
Church, who was starved of service for much of the match, almost dragged his side back into it a minute after the goal but he could only head wide from close range.
Charlton manager Chris Powell threw on Marvin Sordell in an attempt to salvage something from the game the former Watford man combined well with Harriott to present another good chance for the visitors but the latter's inviting cross evaded everyone.
Ings almost added a third 10 minutes from time but his stooping header got the better off Hamer but not the woodwork.
It was 3-0 after 85 minutes, Vokes volleying home a Junior Stanislas corner from close range for his sixth of the season.