Wolves made it an impressive 11 wins from their last 13 league games with a goal in each half as Boro saw their run of three wins in four league matches come to an end in the first ever meeting between the sides.
But it was tough on the visitors who found themselves frustrated by a man-of-the-match display from Wanderers goalkeeper Carl Ikeme.
Doyle, who had started the previous two games on the bench for tactical reasons, made an instant impact on his return to the starting line-up.
He took only seven minutes to score, stabbing the ball home from four yards out after a powerful run and cross from the left wing by Bakary Sako.
It would have been easy for Stevenage to have wilted after that early setback but they pressed hard for an equaliser only to be frustrated by Ikeme, who saved from Luke Freeman and Greg Tansey.
Wolves struggled to really threaten again until the stroke of half-time when a goal-line clearance from Jimmy Smith denied Lee Evans.
It was Boro who carried more of a threat in front of goal in the second-half - but their luck was out.
Stevenage central defender Luke Jones saw his 51st-minute effort cleared off the line by Bjorn Sigurdarson before Ikeme came to the rescue again for Wolves with two stunning saves in the space of as many minutes to deny Francois Zoko.
Henry then made a rare Wolves attack pay off to make the game safe nine minutes from time when he raced on to Evans' pass to finish from just inside the area.
Meanwhile, Wanderers handed a first outing of the season to B£5million midfielder Jamie O'Hara - who played the final six minutes - after taking him off the transfer list.