On-loan Neil Danns then put the icing on the cake with a goal in injury time for Dougie Freedman's men, who recorded only their second win at the Reebok this season.
After going eight games unbeaten, Wanderers were subjected to back-to-back 1-0 defeats at Middlesbrough and then at home to Huddersfield last Tuesday.
But they controlled the majority of the match over the South Yorkshire opponents, who have now gone six games away from the Keepmoat Stadium without a win. The result also sees the Trotters leapfrog above Rovers in the table.
On-loan Cardiff forward Mason made his first start for Bolton in place of top-scorer Jermaine Beckford and midfielder Chris Eagles also came back into the starting line-up.
Doncaster only made one change to their side as David Cotterill came in for James Coppinger, with captain Richie Wellens recovering from a back injury.
Rovers had the first chance of the game when a well worked free-kick and passing move eventually saw Mark Duffy force Andrew Lonergan into a save.
From the resulting corner, Duffy's ball in found Bongani Khumalo, whose header came back off the post and went to safety.
Wanderers came back with an effort of their own just moments later as the lively Moritz's cross found Darren Pratley, whose volley from 15-yards out sailed just wide.
Pratley could have easily then had a penalty after being body-checked in the box but referee Richard Clark waved away the midfielder's strong claim.
The Trotters then mustered up another opportunity and this time they did not miss.
Moritz found Mason in the box and the former Plymouth striker's shot deflected off an unfortunate Khumalo and beyond goalkeeper Ross Turnbull in the 33rd minute.
That goal saw the home side grow in confidence and, just over five minutes later, they doubled their advantage.
Moritz's drilled strike rattled off the inside of the post and in with former Chelsea stopper Turnbull left helpless in goal.
Bolton then went on to dominate the second half and could have easily added to their tally early on if it had not have been for Turnbull's interventions.
But defender Matt Mills was certain that he did add a third after his towering header from Moritz's corner found the back of the net. However, referee Clark awarded the visitors a free-kick in the box for pushing.
But Wanderers then eased home for the victory in injury time as substitute Danns fired the ball into the bottom-left corner to see Freedman's outfit gain their biggest win of the season.