A second-half penalty from former Rovers striker James Hayter condemned Doncaster to their 10th defeat on the road this season - and reduced the gap between the relegation rivals to only five points.
The hosts, who handed on-loan midfielder Duane Holmes a first start, looked bright from the outset but spurned a handful of openings in a first half that epitomised much of their season so far.
Striker Ishmael Miller took only four minutes to threaten the visitors' goal but scuffed Joe Ralls' sweeping ball disappointingly wide.
Yeovil manager Gary Johnson was left with a headache when Miller limped off with a hamstring injury after 10 minutes with ex-Dorchester Town target man Kieffer Moore replacing him alongside Hayter in attack.
Doncaster, who came into the game having won only once away from home all season, slowly grew into the contest with Mark Duffy and Jordan Bowery looking lively in a pulsating opening period.
Rovers goalkeeper Sam Johnstone came up against his former club following a short-lived spell in the south west earlier this season, and he thwarted his former employers with a terrific save in the 27th minute after Tom Lawrence's fizzing free-kick was glanced on by Byron Webster.
The visitors almost grabbed the lead after half an hour when captain Richie Wellens, returning to the starting eleven after a two-match ban, found Bowery on the penalty spot but his shot was blocked by Yeovil's Shane Duffy.
At the other end, Yeovil forced Johnstone into two more saves before the break. Defender Luke Ayling found Moore and then Duffy in the box but both players headed wide as the home side went into half time frustrated.
The Glovers last enjoyed a league win against Blackpool on December 3 but the hosts will not have created many more clear-cut chances than early in the second half when Tom Lawrence tamely headed Holmes' cross straight at Johnstone.
Yeovil's fortunes turned shortly before the hour mark when debutant Holmes, who signed on loan from Huddersfield on Friday, was tripped in the box by James Husband. Former Doncaster striker Hayter confidently stroked the ball home from the spot.
With Doncaster's defence rocking, Moore should have doubled the hosts' advantage moments later but his header was expertly saved by Johnstone from point blank range.
Substitute Kevin Dawson rattled the crossbar from a late header for the home side but their defence was rarely tested in the closing exchanges.