Robson only moved to North America just over 12 months ago when Middlesbrough allowed him to leave.
But after just 18 appearances, Robson and the Whitecaps have now parted company.
A club statement read: "Vancouver Whitecaps FC announced today that the club has parted ways with midfielder Barry Robson. The club and player have mutually agreed to terminate the contract.
"We are thankful for the contributions Barry made during his time with the club. Unfortunately Barry and his family never fully settled in Vancouver, and we've mutually decided to move in different directions."
Robson added: "Thank you to my team-mates, coaches, staff, fans, and media for making my experience in Vancouver enjoyable.
"I am now looking forward to returning home and beginning the next chapter in my career."
Robson is already been linked with returns to former clubs Middlesbrough and Dundee United.