Sessegnon was sent off for his challenge on Yacouba Sylla by referee Lee Probert in Sunderland's 6-1 defeat at the hands of Aston Villa on Monday night.
The Wearside club launched an appeal for wrongful dismissal with the Football Association but that was rejected on Wednesday at an Independent Regulatory Commission hearing.
The ban means the Benin international will not be available for Sunderland's final three games of the season as they look to secure their Premier League future.
Paolo Di Canio's side sit five points above the relegation zone, but Wigan do have a game in hand that they get out of the way at home to Swansea next Tuesday.
Sunderland's season ends with home games against Stoke and Southampton, with their final day clash taking them to UEFA Champions League-chasing Tottenham on May 19.