Having rejected a move to Fulham in last summer's transfer window, Henderson appeared to have slipped down the Anfield pecking order following Rodgers' arrival from Swansea.
The Northern Irishman replaced Kenny Dalglish, who had spent £16million on bringing Henderson to the club from Sunderland a year earlier, and did not hand the midfielder a Premier League start until late November.
But the 22-year-old has gradually established a foothold in the first team, and feels that thanks to Rodgers he has become a better player.
"From day one he has been good with me," said Henderson. "Fulham was an option, but I felt I had more to give here, that I could help the team, that I was improving and I could give something back.
"He gave me that opportunity and helped me to do that.
"I have been working with the manager on the tactical side of the game, which I think has improved.
"I am thinking about the game a lot more. I am more disciplined in terms of when to press and when to make the forward runs.
"I have improved this season. If I look back on my performances I'm more mature, disciplined, and more tactically aware. I just have to keep going in that direction."
Henderson, who has started all five games in Liverpool's current unbeaten run, would reject any further overtures of a move away from the club this summer.
"Of course I'd say no. I want to be playing for Liverpool for as long as possible."