Vilanova had been scheduled to have the "pioneering treatment" this summer but it has been brought forward, with Barca having won the Primera Division title with three games to spare.
The 44-year-old spent two months in New York earlier this year undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for cancer, having twice had surgery on his parotid gland in Spain over the last 18 months.
He returned to America for follow-up tests a fortnight ago and for his upcoming trip is set to be away from Barcelona for five days.
Barcelona said on their website: "Tito Vilanova has confirmed at a press conference that he will have further treatment for cancer next week in New York. The pioneering treatment has been developed at a specialised centre and is proving particularly effective.
"It was originally planned for this summer but as Barca has now clinched the league title it has been advanced to next week. Tito Vilanova will be away from Barcelona from Monday to Friday."
Barca, who were crowned Spanish champions for the fourth time in five years last weekend, play host to Real Valladolid on Sunday before completing their season against Espanyol and Malaga.