Manager Martin O'Neill has moved fast to strengthen his squad this month and Mangane has arrived from Saudi Arabian club Al-Hilal, with an option for a permanent switch in the summer.
The 29-year-old has become the club's second January signing following the arrival of midfielder Alfred N'Diaye from Bursaspor last week.
O'Neill told the club's website said: "Kader is a player who will add to the overall strength of our squad and give us options.
"He will improve competition for places and we are delighted to welcome him to the club."
Mangane started his playing career in his home country before spending six years in Switzerland.
He then moved to France, playing for Lens and Rennes in Ligue 1 before heading to Saudi Arabia in 2012.