The midfielder's extended deal ties him to United until the summer of 2015, with the option of a further year.
His previous contact was due to expire at the end of the current season.
Carrick, who has won five Premier League titles and one Champions League since joining from Tottenham in 2006, said: "It's great to extend my contract at this club. I am really enjoying my football.
"The club has gone through a few changes and working under David Moyes has been fantastic. I have won many trophies in my years playing here and I am looking forward to achieving more in the future."
Moyes said: "I am delighted Michael has extended his contract. During my short time at the club it hasn't been hard to notice that Michael is a great reader of the game and has excellent passing ability.
"He is an exceptional man and a true professional and it's great that he has committed himself to the club."
However, Carrick told the club's television channel he was frustrated at being out until at least mid-December with his problematic Achilles complaint.
"I have had a good run," he told MUTV. "Over the last two or three years I have missed one game at a time so to be sitting out a number of matches is very frustrating.
"You just have to deal with it, pull yourself away from the games ahead and change your focus to rehabilitation and getting fit as quickly as possible."
Carrick was able to have a short break in Dubai last week but has now started the battle to get fit.
"I am not exactly close," he said.
"I won't be fit for the games in the next week or two. We will see how it goes
Now on 334 appearances for United, Carrick is the proud owner of five Premier League title medals and was also part of the team that secured that famous Champions League triumph in 2008, scoring in the shoot-out win over Chelsea in Moscow.
"I never imagined this sort of longevity," he said. "The way football is going it is hard to look past your first spell at a club.
"But once you are here there is something that keeps you here. We have had such a great time and it is such a great place to come and play football, to learn and develop, the last seven-and-a-half years seems to have flown by."
With England pair Carrick and Phil Jones both missing Sunday's trip to Cardiff, United boss Moyes will be selecting from 39-year-old Ryan Giggs, £27.5million new boy Marouane Fellaini, who has taken time to adapt following his summer deadline-day move from Everton, Tom Cleverley and Anderson, who has rarely impressed on a consistent basis in over six years at the club.
Anderson, meanwhile, insisted earlier this week that he is determined to fight for his place at United after starting just twice under Moyes this season.
"I have played only two games this season and I tried to do my very best for the team. But it is very hard when you only play a small part now and then," he told the Manchester Evening News.
"But I am not unhappy. I am enjoying it and I know I will be ready whenever the manager picks me.
"I haven't spoken to David Moyes about my situation because I think I have a good situation at the moment. I love this club and I have been here for over six years.
"I am only 25 years old and I have about seven years' football left in me. So I have time on my side and I am happy at Old Trafford.
"I had a lot of injuries last season. I have come back now to help United. I came back in pre-season and felt good and I have been fit now all season.
"I just have to wait for the moment and when it comes for me then I have to take that opportunity."
Darren Fletcher is another midfielder United are currently unable to call upon, with the Scotland international battling to recover from a serious ulcerative colitis condition.
Fletcher has not featured for Manchester United for almost a year, but former team-mate Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has backed him to complete a remarkable return to top-level action.
The Molde boss said: "It's fantastic news that Darren is on his way back. I was over in Manchester about a month ago and I was lucky enough to bump into Fletch and he said he was on the road to recovery.
"I just met him purely by chance outside the supermarket and it was great to see him. I could see just from talking to him that his tail was really up because he's had a rough time of it, obviously.
"It's funny to think I played in his Scotland debut in Oslo. I remember that game well, we actually swapped shirts afterwards and I've still got it at home - I was thinking of digging it out and putting it on for the game on Tuesday night.
"I actually played in Fletch's reserve team debut for Manchester United, I was in the reserves quite a lot!
"I'm not sure he was even 16 at that time but I remember it was a game at Everton and you could just see then that you were watching a fantastic talent."